In this lecture Processor Lewin introduces elasticity and Young's modulus. The fractional length deformation of a material (the strain) depends on the force per unit area (the stress). The stress vs. strain dependence is described conceptually, then explored empirically. The speed of sound in a material depends on the stiffness and density of the material; from this follows the fundamental frequency at which a rod resonates. Professor Lewin cocludes with a demo in which a 2kg block is suspended from one string, and an identical string is suspended from the block. Professor Lewin pulls on the lower string. Which string will break first, the upper one or the lower one? The lower string will break first if the force is impulsive (a quick jerk) because it will elongate faster than the upper string. If we pull slowly the upper string will break first as its tension will then always exceed that of the lower string.
This course is a first-semester freshman physics class in Newtonian Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics, and Kinetic Gas Theory. In addition to the basic concepts a variety of interesting topics are covered in this course: Binary Stars, Neutron Stars, Black Holes, Resonance Phenomena, Musical Instruments, Stellar Collapse, Supernovae, Astronomical observations from very high flying balloons (lecture 35), and you will be allowed a peek into the intriguing Quantum World.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), founded in 1861, is located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and is one of the foremost U.S. institutions in science and technology. It is comprised of five schools and one college, including the renowned School of Engineering and Sloan School of Management, offering Bachelor's, Master's, and Doctorate degrees. Notable alumni include Ben Bernanke, Chairman of the Federal Reserve, Benjamin Netanyahu, prime minister of Israel, and American astronaut "Buzz" Aldrin.