In this lecture, Professor Holloway revisits Malcolm X's life in order to offer a more nuanced interpretation of the black leader than is traditionally taught. Professor Holloway links Malcolm X to a tradition of black intellectuals and political activists like Booker T. Washington, Marcus Garvey, and Robert Williams, and he explores the philosophy of the Nation of Islam (NOI), the organization for which Malcolm X is the national spokesman before his split with Elijah Muhammad in 1964. In the final year of his life, prior to his assassination by NOI members in 1965, Malcolm X makes a religious journey to Mecca, rejects his prior views on race, starts the Organization of Afro-American Unity, and adopts the name El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz. In the remainder of the lecture, Professor Holloway backtracks to explore some of the other historical events that frame the civil rights movement, including Freedom Summer, the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, and the 1964 Civil Rights Act.
The purpose of this course is to examine the African American experience in the United States from 1863 to the present. Prominent themes include the end of the Civil War and the beginning of Reconstruction; African Americans' urbanization experiences; the development of the modern civil rights movement and its aftermath; and the thought and leadership of Booker T. Washington, Ida B. Wells-Barnett, W.E.B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, Martin Luther King Jr., and Malcolm X.
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