Continuing the discussion of Lewis structures and chemical forces from the previous lecture, Professor McBride introduces the double-well potential of the ozone molecule and its structural equilibrium. The inability for inverse-square force laws to account for stable arrangements of charged particles is prescribed by Earnshaw's Theorem, which may be visualized by means of lines of force. J.J. Thomson circumvented Earnshaw's prohibition on ...more
The chemical mode of action of omeprazole is expected to be insensitive to its stereochemistry, making clinical trials of the proposed virtues of a chiral switch crucial. Design of the clinical trials is discussed in the context of marketing. Otolaryngologist Dr. Dianne Duffey provides a clinician's perspective on the testing and marketing of pharmaceuticals, on the FDA approval process, on clinical trial system, on off-label uses, and on ...more
Professor McBride begins by following Newton's admonition to search for the force law that describes chemical bonding. Neither direct (Hooke's Law) nor inverse (Coulomb, Gravity) dependence on distance will do - a composite like the Morse potential is needed. G. N. Lewis devised a "cubic-octet" theory based on the newly discovered electron, and developed it into a shared pair model to explain bonding. After discussing Lewis-dot notation an...more
Professor Sylvia Ceyer explains the standard Gibbs free energy of formation and its relationship to thermodynamic stability. The Second Law of Thermodynamics is defined as it relates to controlling spontaneity with temperature. The lecture concludes by defining the thermodynamic equilibrium constant and the reaction quotient/direction of change in a chemical equilibrium.
The Big Bang created the physical universe. Of course life is part of this physical universe, but the immediate building blocks of life are chemicals. Before the Big Bang, words such as “time” had no meaning, but even in the first few minutes there could be no chemistry since there were no atoms. The nuclei of some of the lighter elements formed within minutes, atoms some time later, and elements heavier than lithium were forged in the sup...more
Stoichiometry of chemical reactions, quantum mechanical description of atoms, the elements and periodic table, chemical bonding, real and ideal gases, thermochemistry, introduction to thermodynamics and equilibrium, acid-base and solubility equilibria, introduction to oxidation-reduction reactions.
Professor McBride outlines the course with its goals and requirements, including the required laboratory course. To the course's prime question "How do you know" he proposes two unacceptable answers (divine and human authority), and two acceptable answers (experiment and logic). He illustrates the fruitfulness of experiment and logic using the rise of science in the seventeenth century. London's Royal Society and the "crucial" experiment o...more
Professor Sylvia Ceyer discusses hybridization and chemical bonding. Using methyl nitrate as an example, Professor Ceyer describes how to find the lowest energy Lewis structure and explains bond symmetry, hybrid orbitals, and atomic orbitals. Moving onto intramolecular interactions, the discussion breaks down the origin of a bad hair day: hydrogen bonding, water, and keratin.
Introduction to Chemical Engineering (E20) is an introductory course offered by the Stanford University Engineering Department. It provides a basic overview of the chemical engineering field today and delves into the applications of chemical engineering.