During its inception, Dell explains how the computer industry was run by engineers. Over a thirty-year period however, customers began to have an important role in the industry, but many companies were still being run by engineers working to promote complexity. With complicated products being sold, says Dell, customers had to rent specialized software and hire consultants from the computer companies to get their products to work. As a result, to the advantage of the computer companies, customers spent excessive amounts of money on personal computers; a model that Dell calls fundamentally flawed.
One of the world's leading universities, Stanford was founded in 1885 in what is now Stanford, California. It is comprised of seven schools, four of which are devoted exclusively to graduate education. Stanford's most renowned programs include the Graduate School of Business, Law School, School of Engineering, and School of Medicine. Notable alumni include author John Steinbeck, Supreme Court Justice William Rehnquist, and Google founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page.