Stratospheric ozone is important as protection from harmful ultraviolet solar radiation. Ozone in the stratosphere blocks almost all UVC radiation, which is extremely energetic and harmful. Ozone within the ozone layer is destroyed through chemical reactions involving chlorine atoms and the ozone molecules. The main anthropogenic source of chlorine in the atmosphere is chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Emissions of CFCs began to increase after 1960 and continued to increase until the 1990s. The 1987 Montreal Protocol banned the emission of CFCs as of 1994, and currently CFC emissions are nearly zero.
This course explores the physical processes that control Earth's atmosphere, ocean, and climate. Quantitative methods for constructing mass and energy budgets. Topics include clouds, rain, severe storms, regional climate, the ozone layer, air pollution, ocean currents and productivity, the seasons, El Niño, the history of Earth's climate, global warming, energy, and water resources.
As one of the world's great universities, Yale traces its roots back to the early 1640s when colonial clergyman sought to establish a school in order to continue the tradition of European education within the Americas. Yale has now grown to educate over 11,000 students from over 100 countries on a 310-acre campus in New Haven, Connecticut. Within the school's 260 buildings are over 2,000 undergraduate programs in 65 departments taught by a distinguished faculty. As Academic Earth's first partner school, Yale has been a leader within the space of OpenCourseWare by consistently delivering on its esteemed mission to expand access to educational materials for all who wish to learn.