With Martin Luther King's assassination, the collapse of SNCC, and the self-destruction of the Black Panthers, one would think that all promise had faded in regards to the possibility of black political and social advancement. But in this lecture, Professor Holloway examines moments of hope for black political organization, including Carl Stokes's 1967 mayoral victory in Cleveland, the formation of the Congressional Black Caucus in 1969, and the 1972 National Black Political Convention in Gary, Indiana. Yet for all of the coalition building taking place, deeper problems revolved around gender. In this lecture, Professor Holloway focuses specifically on the difficulties that black women encountered as they confronted a racist and sexist political system, exemplified by Daniel Patrick Moynihan's concern over women-headed households in black America. When Shirley Chisholm declared her candidacy for the presidency, and when women on the ground, like Johnnie Tillman, fought for welfare rights or tried to join the modern feminist movement, they faced their "double jeopardy," that is a second-class status rooted in both racial and gender oppression. Although the early 1970s certainly was not the first time black women began to speak up about their oppression, Professor Holloway reveals that they finally began to be heard, and they formed groups, like the National Black Feminist Organization and the Combahee River Collective, to try to change the national conversation.
The purpose of this course is to examine the African American experience in the United States from 1863 to the present. Prominent themes include the end of the Civil War and the beginning of Reconstruction; African Americans' urbanization experiences; the development of the modern civil rights movement and its aftermath; and the thought and leadership of Booker T. Washington, Ida B. Wells-Barnett, W.E.B. Du Bois, Marcus Garvey, Martin Luther King Jr., and Malcolm X.
As one of the world's great universities, Yale traces its roots back to the early 1640s when colonial clergyman sought to establish a school in order to continue the tradition of European education within the Americas. Yale has now grown to educate over 11,000 students from over 100 countries on a 310-acre campus in New Haven, Connecticut. Within the school's 260 buildings are over 2,000 undergraduate programs in 65 departments taught by a distinguished faculty. As Academic Earth's first partner school, Yale has been a leader within the space of OpenCourseWare by consistently delivering on its esteemed mission to expand access to educational materials for all who wish to learn.