There are two ozone problems in the atmosphere. Tropospheric ozone in the form of photochemical smog is sometimes dangerously high whereas stratospheric ozone concentration is sometimes dangerously low. Photochemical smog is created through chemical reactions between UV radiation from the run and nitrogen oxides that are emitted from automobiles. High concentrations of tropospheric ozone are dangerous because of the damage ozone can cause to a person's airway if it is inhaled. The EPA has specified limits of ozone concentration but several counties in the USA exceed these limits. The primary air pollutants from which ozone is created have a peak concentration twice a day typically, which is associated with rush hour times during the day.
This course explores the physical processes that control Earth's atmosphere, ocean, and climate. Quantitative methods for constructing mass and energy budgets. Topics include clouds, rain, severe storms, regional climate, the ozone layer, air pollution, ocean currents and productivity, the seasons, El Niño, the history of Earth's climate, global warming, energy, and water resources.
As one of the world's great universities, Yale traces its roots back to the early 1640s when colonial clergyman sought to establish a school in order to continue the tradition of European education within the Americas. Yale has now grown to educate over 11,000 students from over 100 countries on a 310-acre campus in New Haven, Connecticut. Within the school's 260 buildings are over 2,000 undergraduate programs in 65 departments taught by a distinguished faculty. As Academic Earth's first partner school, Yale has been a leader within the space of OpenCourseWare by consistently delivering on its esteemed mission to expand access to educational materials for all who wish to learn.